Prof Ron Maughan (Chair of the Program Committee)
Ron Maughan obtained his BSc (Physiology) and PhD from the University of Aberdeen, and was based in the Medical School there for almost 25 years before moving to England. He is now Visiting Professor in the School of Medicine at St Andrews University.
He spent much of his career trying to understand the physiological responses to exercise and the nature of fatigue, but has included many digressions along the way.
He chairs the Nutrition Working Group of the Medical Commission of the International Olympic Committee. He is a director of the IOC Diploma programs in Sports Nutrition, Sports Medicine, Sports Physical Therapies, Mental Health in Elite Sport and Drugs in Sport.
Prof James Betts
James is Professor of Metabolic Physiology at the University of Bath, where he is Co-Director of the Centre for Nutrition, Exercise & Metabolism and Chair of the Department for Health Research Ethics Committee. His research employs randomised controlled trials to study the effects of nutrition on metabolic regulation, the findings of which have been published in scientific papers in top-ranking scholarly journals. A particular focus of his work has been to examine the links between nutrient timing and human health, for which James was awarded the Nutrition Society Cuthbertson Medal at the Royal Society of Medicine for ‘excellence in clinical nutrition and metabolism research’. James contributes widely within the University, having supervised many doctoral students through their research training; his integration of research into teaching was recognised by the University’s Mary Tasker Award for excellence in teaching.
Prof Louise Burke
Louise is a sports dietitian with 40 years of experience in the education and counselling of elite athletes. She worked at the Australian Institute of Sport for thirty years, first as Head of Sports Nutrition and then as Chief of Nutrition Strategy. She was the team dietitian for the Australian Olympic Teams for the 1996-2012 Summer Olympic Games. Her publications include over 350 papers in peer-reviewed journals and book chapters, and the authorship or editorship of several textbooks on sports nutrition. She is an editor of the International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. Louise was a founding member of the Executive of Sports Dietitians Australia and is a Director of the IOC Diploma in Sports Nutrition. She was awarded a Medal of the Order of Australia in 2009 for her contribution to sports nutrition. Louise was appointed as Chair in Sports Nutrition in the Mary MacKillop Institute of Health Research at Australian Catholic University in Melbourne in 2014 and took up this position in a full-time capacity in 2020.
Dr Edward Chambers
Edward Chambers is a Non-Clinical Lecturer in the Section for Nutrition Research at Imperial College London. He completed his PhD in 2008 at the University of Birmingham, which focused on the impact of oral carbohydrate sensing on central reward responses and exercise performance. Since 2010, he has worked at Imperial College London investigating the beneficial role of dietary fibre intake on gut microbial metabolism and human health. This work has advanced knowledge on the importance of gut-derived short chain fatty acids (SCFA) to appetite regulation, glucose homeostasis, and liver fat storage. Current research projects explore the interplay between dietary fibre, SCFA and physical activity and their effects on human metabolism.
Prof Graeme Close
Graeme is a professor of Human Physiology at Liverpool John Moores University where he combines his academic research with nutrition and physiology consultancy to some of the worlds leading sporting organizations.
Graeme is currently the head of performance nutrition for England Rugby, the Head of Performance Nutrition to The DP World Tour Golf and European Ryder Cup Team and consults to several Premier League Football clubs and players. Graeme is the Deputy Chair of the Sport and Exercise Nutrition Register (SENr) and is a fellow of both The European College of Sport Science (ECSS) and The British Association Of Sport and Exercise Sciences (BASES). Academically, Graeme’s research is focussed upon muscle damage and repair with a specific interest in Vitamin D and most recently cannabidiol (CBD). Graeme has published over 140 research publications and regularly delivers keynote conference presentations in sport nutrition throughout the world
Carla Devlin is a UK Business Development Manager at LGC Assure, specifically delivering the globally recognised INFORMED family of quality assurance certification schemes for dietary supplements (Informed Sport & Informed Choice), raw materials (Informed Ingredient) and manufacturing facilities (Informed Manufacturers).
Informed Sport in particular offers Carla the opportunity to work closely with brands guiding them through the robust certification process, ensuring they understand, and are able to meet the programmes requirements: including pre-certification testing and a manufacturers assessment. Following successful certification, testing every batch pre-release to market is required. Carla is passionate about clean sport, she competed as an elite athlete between 2003 – 2008 as part of the GB rowing team, culminating in a World Championship bronze medal in 2007, and representing GB at the Beijing 2008 Olympics in the women’s 8+. Carla’s elite sporting background enables her to bring an in-depth personal understanding of the importance in reducing the risk of inadvertent doping within the elite sporting community. Part of Carla’s role also includes working alongside key stakeholders within the Anti-doping community, sporting governing bodies and European Specialist Sports Nutrition Alliance (ESSNA) , this offers a unique opportunity to not only work alongside the brands, but also to help empower educators and teach elite athletes/drug tested personnel of the risks associated with consuming supplements and how by utilising an Informed Sport product, they can look to mitigate that risk.
Prof Kirsty Elliott-Sale
Kirsty completed her undergraduate degree and PhD [Exercise Physiology] at Liverpool John Moores University. Her PhD examined the effects of female reproductive hormones on muscle strength and since then her work has primarily focused on female athletes. She worked as a Lecturer at Brunel University and the University of Brighton, before undertaking a four-year Post-Doctoral Research Fellowship at Kings College London. She worked at Nottingham Trent University for 12 years, before joining the Institute of Sport at Manchester Metropolitan University in 2022 as a Professor of Female Endocrinology and Exercise Physiology. In addition to her research on female athletes, which includes the menstrual cycle, hormonal contraceptives, the Female Athlete Triad and Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport, her work in recent years has involved designing and implementing exercise interventions during and following pregnancy in a variety of populations including servicewomen (i.e., military personnel), athletes, and women with obesity. She have co-authored numerous peer-reviewed journal articles, book chapters, expert statements, and editorials on/for sportswomen. In addition, she works with many organisations such as the English Institute of Sport, the Football Association, The Australian Institute of Sport, The European Club Association, and The Wu Tsai Performance Alliance and is part of several special interest groups and advisory boards related to female athletes.
Dr Gethin Evans
Gethin is currently a Reader and Deputy Head of Department of Life Sciences at Manchester Metropolitan University. He is also a member of the Centre for Biosciences. Gethin has been involved in nutritional physiology research since his PhD at Loughborough University which he completed in 2007. Throughout his time at Manchester Metropolitan University, Gethin has continued his research on areas related to fluid balance and recovery from exercise as well as expanded into areas related to metabolic effects of simple sugar ingestion and the co-ordination of gastrointestinal function and appetite regulation in collaboration with colleagues in the Department of Life Sciences and Centre for Bioscience as well as supervising a number of research students. In recent years, this work has focussed on the effects of timing of nutritional intake and physical activity on these markers.
Dr Therese Fostervold Mathisen
Dr. Therese Fostervold Mathisen is an associate professor and post-doctor at Østfold University College (Norway), and president in the Norwegian Eating Disorder Society and in the Norwegian association of Exercise Physiologists. She is a dietitian and exercise physiologist, and has specific expertise in sport nutrition, and in treatment of eating disorders (EDs). In her PhD, affiliated with the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, she developed and tested a new successful therapy for EDs. Projects that she is involved in, evaluates associations and effects on physical and mental health from nutrition, diet, and physical activity behavior, and involves both cross-sectional- and longitudinal designs, with the latter being either preventive or treating in nature. Currently, projects cover screening and prevention of RED-s and EDs in female athletes, improving body image in adolescent athletes to prevent EDs, intervention to improve bone mass in young cross country skiers, implementation of a new ED-therapy in municipal health service, evaluating health effects from heavy resistance training during pregnancy, intervening with digital apps to reduce food waste and improve diets in students, and evaluating health effects from free meal serving in primary school. She is a former volleyball player and national powerlifter.
Prof Stuart Galloway
Stuart is a Professor of Exercise Physiology in the Physiology, Exercise and Nutrition Research Group at the University of Stirling. He is on the Board of the Sport and Exercise Nutrition Register (SENR), is an Advisory board member for Physiology and Nutrition with the Journal of Sports Sciences, and is a member of the Nutrition Science Advisory Board for The Nutrition Society. His research focusses on human nutrition and exercise metabolism studies, and on factors influencing hydration status. His current projects include: exploring carbohydrate feeding requirements during endurance exercise; understanding the role of carnitine in substrate metabolism; investigating the impact of fish oil feeding on skeletal muscle metabolism and function; and examining the hydration responses to different drinks in young and older adults. His research uses a range of techniques to assess whole body physiological responses and recently has included tissue and cell culture methodologies. Stuart has authored over 80 original peer-reviewed research articles, review articles, and book chapters.
Dr Javier Gonzalez
I am interested in human fuel use. How we get fuel from our diet, burn fuels during exercise; and store fuels when they exceed our requirements. I am motivated by curiosity, and understanding ways to improve human health and performance.
My research group employs a variety of methods to understand human fuel use, including indirect calorimetry, tissue biopsies and stable isotope infusion and ingestion. We use these methods across laboratory-based and free-living studies to answer questions from a basic science perspective and others with practical-relevance.
I joined the Department for Health at the University of Bath in 2014 as a Lecturer (Assistant Professor) in Human Physiology before being promoted to Senior Lecturer (Associate Professor) in 2017 and Reader (Associate Professor) in 2020. I am also a consultant to sports teams and industry (e.g., having worked as the Lead Performance Nutritionist at INEOS Grenadiers cycling team).
In recognition of my research, I received the Julie Wallace Award 2018 by the Nutrition Society. I also serve on the editorial board of The Journal of Physiology and am an Associate Editor for the International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism.
Prof John A Hawley
John is currently the Director of the Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research and Head of the Exercise and Nutrition Research Program at the Australian Catholic University in Melbourne. He has published over 300 scientific manuscripts, written over 100 articles for technical journals, and authored two books and numerous book chapters for exercise biochemistry and sports medicine texts. He sits on the Editorial Boards of many international journals and is a frequently invited speaker at both National and International scientific meetings. The current focus of the clinical studies undertaken in his lab are the interaction of exercise and diet on skeletal muscle metabolism, the cellular bases underpinning training adaptation, and how exercise-diet interventions can improve metabolic health outcomes in individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes. A passionate exerciser, he trains daily to keep his maximal oxygen uptake close to his age.
Dr Lewis James
Lewis is currently Senior Lecturer in Nutrition in the School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences at Loughborough University and a member of the National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine, East Midlands. Lewis’s research examines the role of nutrition in sports performance, metabolism and energy balance, where he has published >75 papers. Specifically, most of his current research focusses water and electrolytes balance for exercise performance and health, with additional work focussing on nutrition to support exercise in the heat and nutritional effects on appetite regulation and energy balance. Lewis has a keen interest in applied sports nutrition and over the years has provided nutrition consultancy to professional/ elite athletes, particularly combat sports athletes and endurance athletes, with much of this athlete-focussed work now centred around optimising water and electrolyte intakes. Lewis serves as Associate Editor for the International Journal of Sport nutrition and Exercise Metabolism.
Prof Asker Jeukendrup, PhD, FECSS, FACSM, SENr
Professor Asker Jeukendrup is one of the world’s leading sports nutritionists and exercise physiologist who spent most of his career as a professor at the University of Birmingham (UK) (sports sciences). He is currently director of his own performance consulting business “Mysportscience”, and co-founder and CEO of a Nutrition Planning software business (fuelthecore.com) as well as a (visiting) professor at Loughborough University. Asker is also Performance Manager Nutrition for the Dutch Olympic team and Head performance Nutrition for the Jumbo Visma Pro cycling team, The Red Bull Athlete Performance Centre, Red Bull Salzburg and PSV Eindhoven. He is also associated with FC Barcelona and teaches the FC Barcelona Advanced Sports Nutrition course.
In his academic career Dr Jeukendrup authored 10 books and over 200 research papers and book chapters. In addition to this he worked with Olympic and World champions, Tour de France cyclists, Champions league football teams, and other elite athletes but he also worked extensively with recreational athletes. His mission, regardless of the level, is to use science to help athletes achieve their goals.
Asker practices what he preaches and is competing in Ironman distance triathlons as well as other endurance events. To date he completed 21 Ironman races including 6 time the Ironman world Championship in Hawaii. www.mysportscience.com (twitter @jeukendrup).
Prof Andy M Jones
Andrew Jones PhD is Professor of Applied Physiology and Assistant Deputy Vice-Chancellor for Research at the University of Exeter, UK. Prof Jones is internationally recognized for his expertise in the following areas: 1) control of skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism; 2) causes of exercise-related fatigue; 3) respiratory physiology, especially the kinetics of pulmonary gas exchange; and 4) endurance sports performance physiology and nutrition. He has authored more than 350 original research and review articles, accruing >35,000 total citations to date (h-index of 105 and i10 of 293). He is a former international distance runner and has served as consultant physiologist to UK Athletics, the English Institute of Sport, the Gatorade Sports Science Institute and Nike Inc. Andy is the Editor-in-Chief for ACSM’s flagship journal, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise.
Mhairi Keil SENR, MSc, M.Phil
Mhairi is a Senior Performance Nutritionist with the English Institute of Sport (EIS) and has been working at the highest level of Elite and Professional sport since 2006. Mhairi is currently the Female Athlete Support Lead and Lead Nutritionist for British Gymnastics and GB Modern Pentathlon. Over the years, Mhairi has supported elite athletes through 4 Olympic, Winter Olympic and Paralympic cycles, and worked with professional sports including Rugby Union and Ballet. Mhairi is also a Practitioner Portfolio Assessor panel member for the Sport and Exercise Nutrition register (SENR), the regulatory body for Performance Nutritionists/Dietitians.
Dr Enette Larson-Meyer
Dr Enette Larson-Meyer is currently a Professor in the Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise at Virginia Tech, where she directs the Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism Lab. Her research focuses on how nutrition influences the health and performance of active individuals at all stages of the lifecycle and at all levels of performance. Recent research interests include healthy weight gain in athletes and military personnel, and the importance of iodine and vitamin D status in exercise performance, disease prevention and general wellness. Enette has authored over 100 scientific articles, is the author of “Plant-Based Sports Nutrition. Expert Fueling Strategies for Training, Recovery, and Performance” (Human Kinetics, 2020) and has served on several International Olympic Committee consensus panels. She serves as an Associate Editor for Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise and the Science and Medicine of Football. Earlier in her career, Enette completed an internship at the U.S. Olympic Training Center (Colorado Springs) and served as a collegiate sports dietitian. Her personal interests include trail running, flat water kayaking and Irish-Step dancing. She is the proud mother of three college students, two of whom play/played D2 soccer at U.S. Universities.
Prof James Morton
James is a Professor of Exercise Metabolism at Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU), where he has authored over 190 research publications related to sports science, physiology and nutrition. In addition to academia, James has also worked in a number of performance support related roles across both high performance sport and industry. From 2010-2015, he was the performance nutritionist to Liverpool FC before taking up the position of Nutrition and Physical Performance Lead for Team Sky between 2015 and 2019. In this role, he was responsible for the performance nutrition strategy for 5 consecutive Tour de France wins. James is also the Director of Performance Solutions for Science in Sport (SiS) where he leads the Performance Solutions programme that encompasses the strategic delivery of bespoke performance solutions and innovation for SiS and their elite partners (e.g. the Ineos Grenadiers, Milwaukee Bucks and the FA Women’s teams). He also sits on the Technical Steering Panel for the English Institute of Sport and is a High Performance Mentor for the FA Premier League.
Prof Bethan Phillips
Beth is currently a Professor of Translational Physiology in the School of Medicine at the University of Nottingham. Beth is also a management board member of the MRC-Versus Arthritis Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research (CMAR); a joint venture between the Universities of Nottingham and Birmingham, and a Principal Investigator in the NIHR Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre (BRC). Beth’s research is focussed on the optimisation of environmental (primarily exercise and nutritional) interventions to improve musculoskeletal health in older adults, including those with age-associated conditions. Specifically, Beth’s most recent work has focussed on the metabolic and molecular impacts of surgical prehabilitation for older cancer patients, and the impact of short-term inactivity (i.e., such as that following surgery) on muscle mass and function. Beth is deputy chair of the University of Nottingham Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences Research Ethics Committee and postgraduate training lead for both CMAR and the academic unit of Injury, Inflammation and Recovery Sciences within the School of Medicine. Beth serves as Associate Editor for Applied Physiology, Nutrition & Metabolism (APNM), Nutrients and Frontiers.
Prof Stuart Phillips
Stuart Phillips is a full Professor in the Department of Kinesiology and a member of the School of Medicine at McMaster University. He is Tier 1 Canada Research Chair in Skeletal Muscle Health. He is also the Director of the McMaster University Physical Activity Centre of Excellence. Dr. Phillips has authored more than 220 original research papers and 90 reviews. He is a 5-time nominee, and a 3-time recipient, of McMaster Student Union’s Outstanding Teaching Award. He was the inaugural recipient of the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology’s Mentorship award in 2017. In 2018 and 2019, he was named to Clarivate’s Highly Cited Researchers list as a being in the top 1% of all cited researchers in nutrition and exercise research. Dr. Phillips is a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine and the Canadian Academy of Health Sciences. His work and enthusiasm for science are supported by an incredible pool of talented and industrious undergraduate, graduate students and research fellows.
Dr Jamie Pugh
Dr Jamie Pugh is a Senior Lecturer in Exercise Physiology at Liverpool John Moores University. His research has primarily focused on the gastrointestinal tract and its role in athlete health and performance. As well as publishing numerous original studies relating to the effects of different nutritional interventions on GI function and symptoms during exercise, he has also contributed to a number of reviews and position stands discussing the Probiotics and the Athletic Microbiota.
Prof Craig Sale
Craig is an experienced research leader, responsible for coordinating research activity relating to exercise and nutrition interventions in the Institute of Sport at Manchester Metropolitan University. In his previous role he was responsible for coordinating the research activity of staff across Nottingham Trent University as the Co-Lead of the NTU Health & Wellbeing Strategic Research Theme and of over 50 staff in the School of Science and Technology in his role as the Director of the Sport, Health and Performance Enhancement (SHAPE) Research Centre. He was also the REF Unit of Assessment Coordinator for UoA C24 since 2009, wherein he oversaw a significant upturn in the Units REF related performance and its sector position. Prior to NTU, Craig was a Senior Scientist and then Deputy Capability Group Leader of the Human Protection and Performance Enhancement Group at QinetiQ Ltd, where he was partly responsible for the activity of around 20-30 scientists conducting defence and security work for the Ministry of Defence and other commercial entities. Among other things, Craig is a Fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and a Section Editor for the European Journal of Sports Sciences.
Dr Andy Sparks
Dr Andy Sparks is a Reader in Exercise Physiology in the Department of Sport and Physical Activity at Edge Hill University, in Ormskirk, UK. Andy completed his PhD at Liverpool John Moores University in endurance exercise nutrition and metabolism. He worked as a Lecturer in Exercise Physiology at the University of Westminster, before moving to the University of Cumbria as a Senior Lecturer in Exercise Physiology. Andy has been in the Department of Sport and Physical Activity at Edge Hill University since 2009, where he is Lead Convenor for the Nutrition, Sport and Exercise Performance Research Group. His research is focussed predominantly on endurance and ultra-endurance exercise and acute nutritional interventions to enhance performance. He has a particular interest in cycling and running, both as a researcher and as an amateur athlete. He has authored >70 scientific publications and is on the editorial board of the Journal of Science in Cycling and is an Associate Editor for Frontiers in Nutrition and Frontiers in Sports Active Living. Andy is also a member of the British Association of Sport and Exercise Science Outreach Panel and is a Chair of the Department of Sport and Physical Activity Knowledge Exchange Committee.
Prof John R Speakman
John Speakman is a Professor at the Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology in Shenzhen, China and also at the University of Aberdeen in Scotland, UK. He has been working on energy balance and obesity for more than 40 years. During that time he published more than 600 papers in ISI listed journals, >100 of which as first author. His h factor is 116 and his lifetime cites >47000 (Google scholar). He is a foreign member of the US National Academy of Sciences, an academician of the Chinese National Academy of Sciences and a Fellow of the UK Royal Society. He is a recent recipient of a Royal Society Wolfson merit award and a Presidents International Professorial Fellow of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Dr Trent Stellingwerff
Since 2011, Dr Trent Stellingwerff serves as the Director of Performance Solutions at the Canadian Sport Institute Pacific (Victoria, Canada). In this role, he directs several different research projects across different sport performance discipline areas, with Master’s, Phd and Post-Doctorate students involved. He is also the Sport Science, Sports Medicine & Innovation Lead for Athletics Canada – the governing body of track and field. His primary sport and research focuses are in the field of physiology and nutrition interactions, as well as environmental (altitude and heat) expertise, and he also serves on Own The Podium’s (OTP) National I&R Advisory Council. Prior to 2011, Trent was a Senior Scientist in Performance Nutrition for PowerBar at the Nestle Research Center (Lausanne Switzerland). Trent has more than 100 peer-reviewed scientific publications, and authored 10-book chapters, in the areas of exercise physiology, skeletal muscle metabolism, sports nutrition and performance. In 2010 Trent was a lead author and presenter for the IOC (International Olympic Committee) Nutrition Consensus Meeting. Over the years, Trent has attended and serviced athletes and sports over 4 Olympic Games, 4 Commonwealth Games and >15 World Championships across several sports.
Lucy is a Senior Performance Nutritionist with the English Institute of Sport (EIS) and is currently the Lead Performance Nutritionist for British Triathlon. Lucy has worked with both the Olympic and Paralympic athletes throughout the Rio and Tokyo cycles playing a key role in the development and delivery of the heat and humidity strategies in Tokyo. Recently Lucy was the Team England nutritionist for the Commonwealth Games and has experience of working with elite athletes from a range of sports in the UK and Canada. Prior to working as a performance nutritionist Lucy was an elite athlete becoming an individual finalist in flatwater Kayak at both the Athens and Beijing Olympic Games. Lucy is currently a Practitioner Portfolio Assessor panel member for the Sport and Exercise Nutrition register (SENr), the regulatory body for Performance Nutritionists/Dietitians.
Prof Neil Walsh
Neil’s team at Liverpool John Moores University has produced leading research on nutritional strategies to maintain immune health, practical strategies to acclimate to the heat and new techniques for non-invasive biomonitoring of athletes and soldiers. His team’s work has influenced UK military policy by showing the benefits of preventing nutritional deficits in soldiers for health and performance. Neil has published widely in international journals, co-authored a textbook in Exercise Immunology and either led or co-authored several consensus statements (e.g., exercise and immunonutrition, dietary supplements and the high performance athlete and sleep and the athlete). He currently serves on the editorial board of Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise and Exercise Immunology Review.
Prof Alun Williams
Alun Williams is Professor of Sport and Exercise Genomics at the Manchester Metropolitan University Institute of Sport and holds honorary positions at Swansea University and University College London. He has research interests that originated in muscle physiology, nutrition, and occupational performance in the military, which then spread to the genetics underlying inter-individual variability in sport performance. He has a PhD from the University of Birmingham and heads sports genomics research in Manchester, applying it to human performance and policy development such as eligibility criteria for sex categories in sport. He authored Expert Statements for the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences (BASES) in 2021 on scientific aspects of the eligibility criteria for trans and DSD athletes in sport. He served as an Independent Expert Witness at the Court of Arbitration for Sport in 2019. He also used to play semi-professional rugby union and now blames his exceptionally average genetics for not making a career out of it.
Dr Oliver Witard
Oliver is a Senior Lecturer in Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism at King’s College London and deputy programme director for the UG programme in Sport and Exercise Medical Sciences. He is board member of The Nutrition Society and a member of the Royal Society of Edinburgh Young Academy of Scotland. Oliver’s research focus is protein nutrition for maximising muscle adaptation to exercise training. His publications focus on establishing the optimal dose, source and timing of dietary protein for muscle recovery and performance in athletes. Recently, Oliver has delivered invited talks on protein nutrition at international symposiums, including the inaugural FC Barcelona Sports Nutrition in Football conference, The Gatorade Sport Science Institute pre ACSM conference in Boston, and the Royal Society of Medicine winter meeting in London. He has attended the International Sport and Exercise Nutrition Conference for the past 6 years.